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Everything You Need to Know About the Indian Judiciary for CLAT

With law entrance exams drawing nearer, it is now time to buckle up your Current Affairs preparation. Reading newspapers regularly can help with that, A LOT. In various law entrances, Static GK, along with Current Affairs, forms a major chunk of the General Knowledge section.

Hence, don’t forget to brush up on topics of static GK, especially the ones that are connected to contemporary events. One such topic is the Indian Judiciary for CLAT:

The Indian Government has three main organs- the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. These three organs constitute a system of checks and balances, where they keep an eye on the activities of each other, while not interfering with their respective roles and duties.

The Indian Judicial System is a single integrated one, with the Supreme Court at the top, and is divided into several levels. The Supreme Court is also called the Apex Court, and is the highest form of Judicial Authority in the country.

Important Information About the Supreme Court

  • Date of Establishment- 26 January, 1950
  • First Sitting- 28 January, 1950
  • First Chief Justice of India- H.J. Kania
  • Current and 48th CJI- N.V. Ramana
  • First Six Justices of the SC- Justices S.R.Das, M.C. Mahajan, S. Fazl Ali, H.J. Kania, M. Patanjali Sastri, and B.K. Mukherjea

The Supreme Court was established under Article 124 of the Indian Constitution. According to this Article, every judge of the Supreme Court will be appointed by the President on the recommendation of the National Judicial Appointments Commission. The age of retirement is 65 years. The decision of the Supreme Court is binding on all lower courts.

It also has the power to grant writs to protect the fundamental rights of the citizens of India. This is given in Article 32 of the Constitution. The Apex Court also has Appellate Jurisdiction, and can thus hear appeals resulting from lower court decisions. It also has Advisory Jurisdiction, and can advise the President over matters related to the Constitution. It also acts like a Court of Record.

Important Information About the High Courts

  • The next court in the hierarchy- High Courts
  • Total number of High Courts in India- 25
  • Oldest High Court- Calcutta High Court

The High Courts in India also have the power to issue writs. They have Original and Appellate Jurisdiction and act like Courts of Record. A High Court Judge is appointed by the President of India. He is solely responsible for the appointment of any judge in a High Court, and may consult the Governor of the concerned state, the acting CJI, and the Chief Justice of that state.

A High Court Judge can also be transferred to other courts, on the discretion of the CJI.

Important Information About District Courts

The next courts in the hierarchy are The District Courts.

An image depicting the hierarchy of the Indian Judiciary for CLAT. 

These courts are present in each state, and are responsible for administering justice at the district level. They are under the administrative control of the High Courts of that state and are presided over by a district judge, appointed by the state government. There are additional district judges as well, who have the same powers as the district judges.

These courts are under the appellate jurisdiction of the High Court. These subordinate courts usually follow a uniform system across the districts, and are primarily divided into two- civil and criminal. Article 235 of the Indian Constitution gives the High Courts the power to control the district courts and courts thereto.

With CLAT just a few months away, start focusing on static topics, and connect them to questions that can be asked.

For example, we’ve included static facts like the names of the first and current chief justices of India, the total number of high courts in India, the oldest high court, etc. These are questions that have a probability of being asked in exams, because they are connected to the legal reasoning and the current affairs sections.

Focus on such dynamic topics, and keep preparing.

All the best!

P.S. You can also prepare for Indian Judiciary for CLAT, or judiciary exams by referring to Lawctopus’ Judiciary Corner. 

Source: Lawctopus

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