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The 2022 Kazakhstan Protests: CLATalogue GK series

The 2022 Kazakhstan Protests: CLATalogue GK series

Welcome back to the CLATalogue GK Series! With only a few months to go for CLAT, we hope you have been revising the topics we’ve done and participating in quizzes. Today, we’ll be addressing the 2022 Kazakhstan protests that have been making quite the news.

About Kazakhstan

1. It’s the top global producer of uranium (which jumped in price by 8% after the unrest).
2. The country is also the world’s second-largest miner of Bitcoin.
3. It extends from the Caspian Sea in the west to the Altai Mountains at its eastern border with China and Russia.

Why are the Kazakhstan protests happening?

  1. These protests started when the ruling government of Kazakhstan lifted the price controls of Liquified Petroleum Gas. Post the lift in controls, the prices nearly doubled. This is reason for protest considering that most citizens purchased LPG vehicles or converted their vehicles to run on fuel because of their lower prices. This sudden price hike has thus caused them great hardships.
  2. There has also been a growing discontent among citizens, over rising income inequality and the lack of democracy which has been exacerbated due to the pandemic.
  3. This is the third uprising against an authoritarian, Russia-aligned nation, following pro-democracy protests in Ukraine in 2014 and Belarus in 2020.

Quick Facts About the Kazakhstan Protests

  1. A 2 week emergency was declared in the city of Almaty as well as the western Mangistau province.
  2. Internet services were shut off and messaging apps were banned. (Read about the Kashmir Internet shutdown in brief).

Where does Russia enter the picture?

  1. Kazakhstan broke away from the Soviet Union to become an independent republic in 1991.
  2. Around 20% of the Kazakhs are ethnic Russians.
  3. Baikonur Cosmodrome (located in Kazakhstan) acts as a launch base for all Russian manned space missions.

Administrative effects of the Kazakhstan Protests

  1. The Prime Minister of the country, Askar Mamin resigned due to pressure from protesters.
  2. Former President Nursultan Nazarbayev, who ruled the country right from the soviet era to 2019, stepped down as head of the country’s Security Council.
  3. The new President Kassym-Jomart Tokayev has created a Security Council to control the protests.
  4. Kazakhstan has also sought help from its military allies, including Russia. It has also sought the help of CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization).

About the CSTO

  1. After the end of the Cold War in 1991, the Warsaw Pact was dissolved.
  2. Thus, In 1992, the heads of Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan signed the Collective Security Treaty.
  3. The treaty was signed in Tashkent (Uzbekistan).
  4. Uzbekistan had quit the alliance in 2012.
  5. Today it has six members – Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan.
  6. The alliance has since held joint exercises and anti-terrorism drills against the unrest in Afghanistan.
  7. The CSTO has an Article 4, similar to Article 5 of the NATO (This talks about collective defense which means that an attack against one ally is considered as an attack against all allies.)
  8. Thus, the ally would receive all the necessary assistance, by exercising the right to collective defence in accordance with Article 51 of the UN Charter.

India and Kazakhstan Relationship

  1. India and Kazakhstan have a joint military exercise called KAZIND.
  2. The Indian defence minister and Nursultan Nazarbayev recently held bilateral talks at New Delhi.

Appearing for CLAT? Read other current affairs articles here. 

Source: Lawctopus

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